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./play.it 2.12: API, GUI and video games

./play.it 2.12: API, GUI and video games

./play.it is a free/libre software that builds native packages for several Linux distributions from DRM-free installers for a collection of commercial games. These packages can then be installed using the standard distribution-provided tools (APT, pacman, emerge, etc.).
A more complete description of ./play.it has already been posted in linux_gaming a couple months ago: ./play.it, an easy way to install commercial games on GNU/Linux
It's already been one year since version 2.11 was released, in January 2019. We will only briefly review the changelog of version 2.12 and focus on the different points of ./play.it that kept us busy during all this time, and of which coding was only a small part.

What’s new with 2.12?

Though not the focus of this article, it would be a pity not to present all the added features of this brand new version. ;)
Compared to the usual updates, 2.12 is a major one, especially since for two years, we slowed down the addition of new features. Some patches took dust since the end of 2018 before finally be integrated in this update!
The list of changes for this 2.12 release can be found on our forge. Here is a full copy for convenience:

Development migration

History

As many free/libre projects, ./play.it development started on some random sector of a creaking hard drive, and unsurprisingly, a whole part of its history (everything predating version 1.13.15 released on Mars 30th, 2016) disappeared into the limbs because some unwise operation destroyed the only copy of the repository… Lesson learned, what's not shared don't stay long, and so was born the first public Git repository of the project. The easing of collaborative work was only accidentally achieved by this quest for eternity, but wasn't the original motivation for making the repository publicly available.
Following this decision, ./play.it source code has been hosted successively by many shared forge platforms:

Dedicated forge

As development progressed, ./play.it began to increase its need for resources, dividing its code into several repositories to improve the workflow of the different aspects of the projects, adding continuous integration tests and their constraints, etc. A furious desire to understand the nooks and crannies behind a forge platform was the last deciding factor towards hosting a dedicated forge.
So it happened, we deployed a forge platform on a dedicated server, hugely benefiting from the tremendous work achieved by the GitLab's package Debian Maintainers team. In return, we tried to contribute our findings in improving this software packaging.
That was not expected, but this migration happened just a little time before the announcement “Déframasoftisons Internet !” (French article) about the planned end of Framagit.
This dedicated instance used to be hosted on a VPS rented from Digital Ocean until the second half of July 2020, and since then has been moved to another VPS, rented from Hetzner. The specifications are similar, as well as the service, but thanks to this migration our hosting costs have been cut in half. Keeping in mind that this is paid by a single person, so any little donation helps a lot on this front. ;)
To the surprise of our system administrator, this last migration took only a couple hours with no service interruption reported by our users.

Forge access

This new forge can be found at forge.dotslashplay.it. Registrations are open to the public, but we ask you to not abuse this, the main restriction being that we do not wish to host projects unrelated to ./play.it. Of course exceptions are made for our active contributors, who are allowed to host some personal projects there.
So, if you wish to use this forge to host your own work, you first need to make some significant contributions to ./play.it.

API

The collection of supported games growing endlessly, we have started the development of a public API allowing access to lots of information related to ./play.it.
This API, which is not yet stabilized, is simply an interface to a versioned database containing all the ./play.it scripts, handled archives, games installable through the project. Relations are, of course, handled between those items, enabling its use for requests like : « What packages are required on my system to install Cæsar Ⅲ ? » or « What are the free (as in beer) games handled via DOSBox ? ».
Originally developed as support for the new, in-development, Web site (we'll talk about it later on), this API should facilitate the development of tools around ./play.it. For example, it'll be useful for whomever would like to build a complete video game handling software (downloading, installation, starting, etc.) using ./play.it as one of its building bricks.
For those curious about the technical side, it's an API based on Lumeneffectuant that makes requests on a MariaDB database, all self-hosted on a Debian Sid. Not only is the code of the API versioned on our forge, but also the structure and content of the databases, which will allow those who desired it to install a local version easily.

New website

Based on the aforementioned API, a new website is under development and will replace our current website based on DokuWiki.
Indeed, if the lack of database and the plain text files structure of DokuWiki seemed at first attractive, as ./play.it supported only a handful of games (link in French), this feature became more inconvenient as the library of ./play.it supported games grew.
We shall make an in-depth presentation of this website for the 2.13 release of ./play.it, but a public demo of the development version from our forge is already available.
If you feel like providing an helping hand on this task, some priority tasks have been identified to allow opening a new Web site able to replace the current one. And for those interested in technical details, this web Site was developed in PHP using the framework Laravel. The current in-development version is hosted for now on the same Debian Sid than the API.

GUI

A regular comment that is done about the project is that, if the purpose is to make installing games accessible to everyone without technical skills, having to run scripts in the terminal remains somewhat intimidating. Our answer until now has been that while the project itself doesn't aim to providing a graphical interface (KISS principle "Keep it simple, stupid"), still and always), but that it would be relatively easy to, later on, develop a graphical front-end to it.
Well, it happens that is now reality. Around the time of our latest publication, one of our contributors, using the API we just talked about, developed a small prototype that is usable enough to warrant a little shout out. :-)
In practice, it is some small Python 3 code (an HCI completely in POSIX shell is for a later date :-°), using GTK 3 (and still a VTE terminal to display the commands issued, but the user shouldn't have to input anything in it, except perhaps the root password to install some packages). This allowed to verify that, as we used to say, it would be relatively easy, since a script of less than 500 lines of code (written quickly over a week-end) was enough to do the job !
Of course, this graphical interface project stays independent from the main project, and is maintained in a specific repository. It seems interesting to us to promote it in order to ease the use of ./play.it, but this doesn't prevent any other similar projects to be born, for example using a different language or graphical toolkit (we, globally, don't have any particular affinity towards Python or GTK).
The use of this HCI needs three steps : first, a list of available games is displayed, coming directly from our API. You just need to select in the list (optionally using the search bar) the game you want to install. Then it switches to a second display, which list the required files. If several alternatives are available, the user can select the one he wants to use. All those files must be in the same directory, the address bar on the top enabling to select which one to use (click on the open button on the top opens a filesystem navigation window). Once all those files available (if they can be downloaded, the software will do it automatically), you can move ahead to the third step, which is just watching ./play.it do its job :-) Once done, a simple click on the button on the bottom will run the game (even if, from this step, the game is fully integrated on your system as usual, you no longer need this tool to run it).
To download potentially missing files, the HCI will use, depending on what's available on the system, either wget, curl or aria2c (this last one also handling torrents), of which the output will be displayed in the terminal of the third phase, just before running the scripts. For privilege escalation to install packages, sudo will be used preferentially if available (with the option to use a third-party application for password input, if the corresponding environment variable is set, which is more user-friendly), else su will be used.
Of course, any suggestion for an improvement will be received with pleasure.

New games

Of course, such an announcement would not be complete without a list of the games that got added to our collection since the 2.11 release… So here you go:
If your favourite game is not supported by ./play.it yet, you should ask for it in the dedicated tracker on our forge. The only requirement to be a valid request is that there exists a version of the game that is not burdened by DRM.

What’s next?

Our team being inexhaustible, work on the future 2.13 version has already begun…
A few major objectives of this next version are :
If your desired features aren't on this list, don't hesitate to signal it us, in the comments of this news release. ;)

Links

submitted by vv224 to linux_gaming [link] [comments]

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First Contact - Part Twenty-Three

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The Devastator class Precursor machine was the size of a large metropolis. Full of ground combat machines, air superiority machines, mining and reclamation machines that could move under their own power and were festooned with a thousand weapons. It was over a hundred million years old and had exterminated life on planets with its massive guns, with biowarfare, with chemical warfare, and with good old nuclear fire. It had wiped away planet after planet of the enemies cattle, the hated enemy's food sources, before finally following orders of the greater machines and going into sleep mode on a dead world.
Now the call had sounded out. Cattle had run amuck, even learning jumpspace technology. That meant the enemy had not been defeated, that his food source had multiplied into the trillions while the Devastator had slumbered, slowly sinking into the crust of the barren planet.
That was of no moment. Cattle could not fight back, that was why they were cattle. They knew nothing but safety and the security of numbers, willing to trade their own safety for the suffering of others. The cattle willingly marched into the pens if the pens promised safety.
The cattle were not the problem.
It was the feral intelligence that were the problem. Feral intelligence could fight. They knew nothing else. They cared for nothing else. A feral intelligence always destroyed itself once it could wield nuclear fire. The universe had proved it over and over even before the great machine had gone into slumber.
The call had sounded out, informing the machines that cattle had broken loose from the pens. The Devastator had computed that the problem would be solved quickly, with a minimum expenditure of resources, and had started to go back into slumber.
That was when the second call sounded. A feral intelligence had mastered FTL travel and had turned all of their unthinking violence against the Precursor war machines.
The Devastator considered the chances of the feral intelligence lasting long enough to withstand his brethren's assault, withstand purification and pacification.
It was mathematically insignificant. Not zero, but close enough that it required an application of resource driven computation to analyze it.
Feral intelligences always destroyed themselves.
The Devastator knew this. Had it encoded into its very bones. It did not feel the electronic version of caution as it moved into the planetary system, exiting faster than light travel. It screeched out its warcry as it exited into the system and brought up its scanners.
It felt the electronic version of anticipation as it detected orbital facilities around two planets that teemed with billions of cattle, as it tasted jumpspace wake trails, as it felt the presence of a small, insignificant amount of cattle space vessels arrayed to attempt to stand against it near the outer gas giant.
It was a waste of resources.
Cattle could not withstand machines.
It was as solid a fact as radioactive decay and as impossible to stop.
It roared and turned to accelerate toward the cattle ships waiting on the other side of the gas giant, letting them know the futility of their resistance and that nothing could stop it from destroying them any more than they could stop entropy.
It felt electronic satisfaction as nearly 10% of the cattle ships broke formation and fled for the planets.
The cattle ships lit their engines, trying to keep the gas giant between them and the great Precursor machine but the Devastator knew it would do no good. It would ensure they were caught mathematically opposite of it and begin launching subsidiary craft to destroy them and reclaim the resources of their wreckage.
The Devastator slowed as it approached the gas giant, ancient code pulsing impulses into the electronic brain at the mathematical certainty of destroying the cattle's defenses and thus weakening the hated enemy.
pssst... over here...
The transmission was in binary. The basic code, on a low band that the Devastator used to contact and exchange data with its peers. The signal origin was close, just behind it, in the gap between two point defense radars.
The Devastator tumbled as it slowed, searching with its senses to check that tiniest of gaps in its sensors. It could detect nothing out of the ordinary. The fact that the gas giant had a high level of hydrocarbon and pseudo-organic compounds was a high certainty with most gas giants of that size. The Devastator cast around, knowing the cattle had not sent that transmission.
psst... here...
This time the transmission was only a few hundred kilometers above the hull, right behind the main guns of battery-eight, between the massive cannons and the sensor array, in a gap in the coverage caused by space dust not yet cleared from the array. The Devastator ensured the cattle vessels were on the other side of the gas giant as it cast around again, looking for what could possibly be sending the message on that particular channel and rotating again to either force the transmitter to move away or hit the hull of massive Devastator.
...right here...
The Devastator felt the computer version of anxiety. A new factor had entered the computation. The voice, and the binary signal somehow had a voice, a whispering, tickling, hissing faint signal of binary on a wavelength just above the screaming particles of the foam between realspace and subspace. This time the voice had come from just below the Devastators thick hull, beneath the vessel, in a gap between the sensors in a place where its own orbital guns would not dazzle the sensors. The Devastator rolled, getting the upper sensors into place in a graceful sideways roll.
Nothing.
The Devastator was barely tracking the cattle. They were of no moment. Something was whispering on a bandwidth that was beyond organic abilities. Could it be a damaged ally, barely able to whisper for electronic assistance?
...I see you...
The Devastator heard the signal hiss to life, trickling out of empty space a few hundred kilometers away. It felt of a surge of self-defense protocol override everything else and it unleashed all of its gun at the empty space, suspecting that this possible enemy may be using some type of photo-passthrough adaptive camouflage.
Nothing.
The Devastator felt the self-preservation protocols wake up and fill some of its processors. That signal had originated from that point! Even a dust-speck would have been detected by its scanner arrays, nothing could have escaped the terrawatts of death it had unleashed.
...touch...
The Devastator felt a physical TOUCH on its housing, the decameters thick armor around the massive computer core that made up its brain. That was impossible! It was in the center of the ship, protected by layer after layer of armor, defensive mechanisms, sensors, but yet it had felt something touch the housing, press against it lightly, only a few tickles of the suggestion of pressure per square micrometer but a touch all the same.
There was a slight ripple in realspace only a few meters above the hull and the Devastator pushed itself away, firing every weapon it could bring to bear on the spot only a few atoms wide, all of its sensor questing, seeking, hunting in electronic desperation to find out what was transmitting, what was touching it!
...here...
The word was whispered from only a few meters away from the electronic "brain" of the Devastator, inside the protective housing, inside the field that would shut down biological neural function and even primitive artificial intelligences!
The Devestator felt self-protection and self-preservation programs never before accessed come online and flood into its RAM as the word was whispered at it from inside the final layer of protection.
Massive nCv cannons lowered, the housings screamed as the Devastator pushed them past the limit, to aim at its own hull. It opened fire, trying to claw into its own body in the electronic version of panic to get whatever was inside it out of it.
All of its sensors were directed into its own body. It no longer even bothered with tracking the cattle fleet. Even its astrogation and navigation programs, even the ones responsible to maintain orbit around the gas giant, were desperately racing through the circuitry, desperate to find whatever was whispering.
...over here...
The whisper was over it, on top of it, and carried sidecode of a mathematically impossible jumble of electrons arrayed in an impossible manner, with quarks whirling through electron valences, antimatter electrons in the nucleus, preons stretched to massive size taking up the place of neutrons, all with jumbling strangled mathematical codes that made no sense.
The Devastator's brain burned out the receptors to defend itself from such electronic madness.
And felt a touch upon one of the upper lobes of its quantum computer brain.
...over here...
The Devastator was throwing antivirus software out, slamming firewalls against each other, crushing ports into electronic ghosts, doing anything it could to keep out the voice. Inside the Main Computer Housing the last resort lasers began raking across anything that didn't match the original blueprints, burning away dust, odd quarks and electrons, destroying an upgraded maintenance robot that was desperately trying to detect what had touched its carapace.
From deep within the gas giant tentacles hundreds of miles long rose toward the Devastator, the ends slowly unrolling as massive graviton assisted 'suckers' on the inside of the tentacles deployed razored thorns of dark matter infused psuedo-bone.
The Devastator detected the tentacles just as they wrapped around it, the thick psuedo-protoplasmic tentacles that were thick with dark matter squeezing the Devastator's hull with impossible strength as meters thick muscles flexed with enough strength to crush the hull into itself and shatter armor over a kilometer thick.
Gibbering, raving, SCREAMING in something beyond electronic self-preservation programs would normally allow, the Devastator began to break apart, caught in the grips of the tentacles, being pulled into the gas giant.
...delicious delicious delicious...
The Devastator heard from inside its own mind as a beak nearly twenty kilometers long crushed its hull.
HELP ME, BROTHERS, PLEEEEEASE!
The beak closed and the Devastators brain flashed out of existence as the hull crushed around it.
The last thing it felt was something new. It threw data out with the cry for assistance to let its brethren know the last experience hashed data compile it had undergone. The data made no sense to the other Precursor war machines that heard the cry. A biological entity could have explained it.
Terror.
And despair.
A Desolation Class precursor war machine was assigned to discover what had caused the Devastator's intelligence collapse.
It dropped into the system and found no trace of its mechanical brethren.
Just some cattle species space craft hiding behind a gas giant, obviously intending ambushing it.
Feeling the electronic version of anticipation it moved into orbit around the gas giant, intending on forcing the cattle ships to move out of line of sight with their worlds if they wanted to stay on the opposite side of the gas giant from it. It updated its computations based on the fact that 10% of the cattle's ships had fled away from it.
It had already computed out the battle. It knew how the battle would go. While it could not detect any signs of its little brother it computed that it would simply destroy the cattle and then search. It powered up its guns and began to move it's metropolis sized bukk slowly to
...psst... over here...
---------------------
The stellar system was infested with a known species of cattle, obviously seeking to rise above themselves as the Jotun class Precursor vessel arrived in the system. It released its roar to let the cattle know not only why but who was destroying them to reclaim the resources they so foolishly squandered. It began unthawing ancient bioweapons and chemical weapons known to work upon that race, began reconfinguring its war machines to forms that had exterminated who planets of the cattle during the time that the Precursor war machine had been forged. The Jotun released over a hundred Devastator classes from its hull, computed the battle plan as they came to electronic life, then informed them of how the extermination and reclamation would progress.
They were barely into the system when a high energy signal appeared, rising from the most heavily infested planet and moving toward them. The Jotun ordered a diagnostic of its scanners when the first information came in.
It was apparently moving at .85C, but yet its progress toward the Jotun and its smaller brethren on the system map showed it moving at almost 22C. That made no sense. An object moving at .85C only approached at .85C, not at 22C.
By the time the diagnostic was done the object had gotten a third of the way toward the Jotun, crossing a quarter of the radius of the system.
The scanners reported that the energy signal, with the strength normally reserved for a quasar, was not a massive ship or an oncoming armada interlinked together, but was simply a single object the size of cattle.
Again the Jotun ordered a complete low level full diagnostic on all systems. Risky, but any object radiating that much power and moving at two different speeds required all systems were working at optimum efficiency.
It had finished just as the small object came to a stop. The Jotun focused scanning arrays on it, turning up the power to the point that it would boil away meters of armor.
The figure was a primate, half of it made up of robotics. It had some kind of sheet of material floating behind it, the movement suggesting some kind of current was effecting it and making it undulate. It was dressed in two primary colors, red and blue, had its lower legs pressed together with the toes pointing down and the upper limbs crossed over its chest, one biological the other mechanical.
"So, you're the new punk everyone's talking about," The figure stated over a wide bandwidth of wavelengths. Oddly enough, to the Jotun's sensors, sound waves travelled through vaccum almost instantly across a light second to its sensors.
The Jotun tried to compute how sound waves moved faster than light through a vacuum.
Instead of answering the Jotun and its brethren opened fire.
The figure arced through the beams as if light speed weapons were moving slow enough for it to just compute and swoop around in a resource wasting corkscrew. The Jotun realized it was racing for one of the Devastators, one clenched fist held in front of it.
The Jotun computed a 99.99999999999998 chance that the small primate would splatter against the hull of the Devastator and started to turn its attention to computing a missile firing resolution for missile bay 148 to destroy an orbital facility around the nearest planetoid.
The small figure punched straight through the Devastator, as if it was made of nebula gas instead of density collapsed armor, high tensile ceramics, and reinforced internal spaces. The Devastator's computer core shrieked with self-preservation code snippets as the figure exited the opposite side of the Devastator holding the Primary Computer Core CPU0 in its fist. It paused, looked at its fist, and shot beams of red energy from its eyes, destroying the computer core in a puff of atomic smoke.
The Jotun yanked its processing power back to the figure as it raked its gaze, still emitting beams of red energy that left ripples in jumpspace, across the side of another Devastator, tearing it open like it was made of fragile tissue, the red beams reducing the computer core to its component atoms with the briefest of touches.
Several computational nodes collapsed when trying to analyze the beams, suffering the fatal CANNOTDIVIDEBYZERO shriek of despair before imploding on themselves.
The Jotun stared in electronic shock, all his computational power trying to compute how the tiny half-mechanical primate could grab a hold on the front armor of one of the Devastators, and without any source to exert leverage against, physically move a city-sized spacecraft in an arc and throw it against another one.
According to scanners the "thrown" Devastator was only moving at 0.001C for inertia purposes yet crossed the hundreds of kilometers to the next Devastator in an amount of time that would require it to be moving at 6C.
CANNOTDIVIDEBYINFINITYDIVIDEDBYZERO
The Jotun cut loose with its weapons and goggled in electronic confusion as most of the beams and slugs were avoided, slapped aside, or ignored.
Until a nCv (near C velocity) slug the size of skyscraper hit it dead center of the chest, the impact point looking only the size of a soda can.
The Jotun's processors struggled to understand how something that size had only made an impact smaller than itself.
CANNOTSUBDIVIDETWINKIESBYCHEETOSBYZERO
The figure looked down at the tear in its suit, at the bruised biological flesh that had been exposed, then at the Jotun. It lifted a hand, extended the first finger next to the opposable thumb, and slowly waved it back and forth.
"That might have worked against a Galactic Class Klark, but it was pathetic against an Apokalypse level Injustice MCLXI Cyber-Clark," The figure said, the tone calm and confident. The meanings behind the words were gibberish to the Jotun, who devoted processor cycles to try to decode the meanings for any hint on how to defeat the creature before it.
The Jotun computed that retreat was the only option as the small primate figure set about destroying the last of the Devastators.
It began activating the engines when the primate suddenly turned in place.
"No you don't," It snapped.
Again, it sounded as if the Central Computer Core Housing had been set to atmosphere so that sound waves could be heard within it, yet a quick check showed the housing was still at almost perfect vacuum.
Sound waves cannot travel through space, a hundred diagnostic programs computed.
And promptly crashed.
Those red beams lanced out again and the Jotun braced in the microsecond it had.
It was like being brushed by the solar flare of a red giant concentrated into a piercing lance of nuclear fire. Armor exploded from energy transfer, slagged away from thermal transfer, or just ceased to exist as ravening atoms usually only found in the photosphere of a dying red sun attacked the atoms of the armor. The beam tore through mile after mile of internal structure, the figure still emitting the beam from its tiny eyes.
The Helljump engines exploded when the light touched them.
The Jotun listed, pouring debris and a cloud of atomized armor from the wound that completely bisected it.
"Done. Now let's see the face of the enemy," The figure said, slapping its hands together after it crashed/flew through the last Devastator. It reoriented on the Jotun and began to "slowly" drift toward the Jotun, moving at only 0.000003C according to some scanners but crossing the distance as if it was moving at 1.5C.
The figure flexed its primate hands and a slow smile spread across its face.
"I can't wait to rip away your housing and see you with my own eyes," the figure said, the sound waves again travelling inside the vacuum of the strategic housing.
The Jotun tried to react but the figure was suddenly pushing open armor with its two hands.
Self-preservation programs crashed trying to compute how to prevent impossibility itself from breaching critical spaces. Self-defense programs tried to compute how to defend against something that did nothing but radiate impossibility around it.
The Jotun knew what it had to do as the creature tore open the last of the hardened bulkheads protecting the Strategic Housing.
It detonated the antimatter reactor that powered the "brain" as the figure tore through the Strategic Housing and laid eyes upon the supercomputer core.
It had computed that not even the figure could withstand the direct assault of kiloton of pure antimatter point blank.
The explosion completely consumed the Jotun.
When the ravening energy disappated the red and blue figure was lying in blackness, surrounded by an expanding ring of debris and energy.
It stared at the stars and mouthed a single word.
"Ouch."
---------------------
CONFED INTELLIGENCE
TO: MANTID INTELLIGENCE
Our digitial brothers have computed a high chance that we're not looking at a handful of these Precursors, but rather an armada of them that had gone to sleep thinking everyone was dead. We concur and are buckling down for the long haul.
-----NOTHING FOLLOWS------
MANTID FREE WORLDS INTERNAL MEMO
If humankind ever wonders why it was put in this universe by some unknown creator then know that it was for this very moment.
submitted by Ralts_Bloodthorne to HFY [link] [comments]

Immediate Edge Review, Is Immediate Edge SCAM Or Legit Trading App?

Immediate Edge Review, Is Immediate Edge SCAM Or Legit Trading App?

Immediate Edge Review: Is This Crypto Robot Legit or Scam
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Is Immediate Edge scam or legit
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Click the link to access Immediate Edge official web site or keep reading to understand more
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Immediate Edge Review
How will Immediate Edge work?
All a user has to try and do is join up at the Immediate Edge web site, then deposit funds to have access to the robot, when which they can begin trading by switching on the bot. It will would like no control or intervention from humans, beyond beginning and stopping it.
You additionally need to stay checking, daily, to observe the performance of the software in doing its job and ensure that it is earning any returns needless to say. From there, you can confirm whether or not to extend or decrease your investment towards crypto, options or stock trading using this robot.
You'll be able to also monitor performance to be ready to regulate the trading settings from your dashboard and optimize totally different features of the trading bot for instance set amount of trades or amount to invest in every trade.
Founder of Immediate Edge
In line with the Immediate Edge website, this trading bot was founded by Edwin James. Reportedly, he created billions with forex, crypto, and binary options trading and still shares his strategies on the way to trade the assets on the app.
He founded the app to create it potential for brand spanking new traders to create cash in less than 3 minutes of signing up.
How to sign up on Immediate Edge:
Registration: Registering or signing up on the website is free but to start trading, you want to deposit no less than $250. You discover a registration type on the top right of the page, on that you type in your email, full names and phone numbers and country code. Create a password to be used for logging in later.
Deposit funds: Depositing funds allows you to connect to a robot broker and then you'll begin the bot to start out trading. You'll deposit with Visa, Wire Transfers, Klarna or Skrill. The currencies supported are Swiss Franc, British Pound, US Greenback, and Euro and using a credit or debit card limits deposits to less than $/£/€/?10,00zero in one day and $/£/€/?40,000 in an exceedingly month.
Immediate Edgeisn’t licensed to handle your funds, it works with brokers to handle the cash once it's deposited.
Demo trading: Relying on the broker you're connected to, you can begin to practice trading with the Immediate Edge software. Some brokers do not have this feature on their platforms. Still, with the latter, you can test their options before you deposit cash to try and do live trading. With the demo options, you'll be able to familiarize yourself with the trading house before beginning to use real money to trade.
Trading: Before and when you've got switched on auto-trading, you would like to check the trading settings daily. You'll regulate some things including stop-loss orders and when to try to to them, amount to speculate per trade and how several trades to try to to per day. You'll be able to also choose that cryptocurrencies to trade, and you'll be able to select all the most in style ones together with Bitcoin and Ethereum. You also get to observe the profits/losses and decide if to continue and/or when to prevent.

https://preview.redd.it/c9scw5fkohm51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3d127be2887c4c8960023a8cf1b1f55297dbf250
Withdrawals, user verification, cost of using the app and alternative options

The payouts or withdrawals are made by filling letter of invitation type on the funds’ management page and it can take two operating days to replicate in your checking account. No fee is charged on withdrawals. You'll withdraw your cash including the capital while not a lot of problem on this app, that is better than several that don't enable withdrawals at any time
While some bots need verifications by asking for your ID and statements, this one will not. You are done once uploading your payment details. The bot charges a commission on profit. Besides, you get twenty fouseven client support on Immediate Edge
Immediate Edge may be a legit, secure, user-friendly trading application for crypto, stocks, and choices. It has a zealous customer service and reports a high success rate. Another smart robot we have recently reviewed is Bitcoin Professional
We tend to hope that this review helped you to make a decision concerning this trading app. Additionally, subscribe to our web site to be invariably notified concerning new software from this industry. For live reviews subscribe to our Youtube Channel or FB Page.

https://www.immediateedge.org/
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https://www.pinterest.co.uk/immediateedge/
https://twitter.com/EdgeImmediate
https://www.instagram.com/immediateedge/
submitted by EggNecessary9499 to u/EggNecessary9499 [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to u/ErantyInt [link] [comments]

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX - Composite TV-Out for your Pi4!

CRTPi Project Presents:

CRTPi4-RCA v3.4FX

A CRTPi image for running 240p via 3.5mm Composite on the Raspberry Pi4
Other Releases:
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (PAL Only) 5/18/2020
Changelog: v3.4FX for RCA (NTSC&&PAL) 5/17/2020
Changelog: v3.0F for RCA 5/11/2020
Changelog: v2.0F for RCA 4/1/2020
Changelog: v1.1FX 12/20/2019
Changelog: v1.0F Hotfix 10/31/2019
Changelog: v1.0F 10/29/2019
Changelog: v0.4 10/22/2019
Changelog: v0.3 10/2/2019
How does this even work!?
The amazing u/b0xspread has found a way to enforce modeswitching by watching the logs and processes, and continuing to enforce our desired mode long after the system wants to revert back. We're both expanding this scripting further to hopefully solve the same issues on the RGB and VGA forks -- but progress is slow due to the complex and varied nature of available resolution modes on those builds. But for now, let's just call this "black magic."
What Does That Look Like?
Here are some examples of games being played in beautiful 240p on CRT sets using the RCA Image!.
What is Different?
  • Retropie 4.6 (build 72132587 commit 05/07/20 Buster 10)
  • Retroarch 1.8.5
  • Full Apt-Upgrade for newest firmware and app dependancies (Recommended to repeat this function on your own Pi4)
  • 4GB (3872256 KB Uncompressed Image) (Compressed via WinRAR to 1043540KB)
  • SSH, Samba Share, and USB Rom Service enabled by default
  • Heavily modified Sakitoshi CRT-TVout script for switching between 480i and 240p
  • Further modified Sakitoshi script by u/b0xspread to allow video resolution switching on Pi4 Architecture
  • Optional overclock values in /boot/config.txt for Pi4 (disabled by default) [RECOMMENDED!]
  • NTSC @ 60hz 720/640x480 480i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • PAL @ 50hz 720/640x576 576i Resolution for Emulationstation & Kodi
  • NTSC @ 60hz 640x480 Progressive (240 lines) for Retroarch
  • PAL @ 50hz 640x576 Progressive (288 lines) for Retroarch
  • Per-system custom refresh rates for Retroarch
  • Single-frame Run Ahead enabled for many 8-bit & 16-bit consoles and handhelds for Retroarch
  • Optional 480i mode for PSX and Arcade games
  • Preloaded with free 240p test suites for multiple consoles
  • Preloaded with additional stable (opt) Retroarch emulators
  • Preloaded with DOSBox and ScummVM
  • Preloaded with various 4:3 splashscreens from the RPiF download
  • Preloaded with 4:3 Ruckage's runcommand launching screens for supported systems
  • Custom 4:3 Arcade DOJ "Winners DO Use Drugs" splash screen.
  • Preloaded with MUNT Roland MT-32 MIDI emulation for DOSBox/ScummVM
  • Retroarch FCEUmm (NES) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 horiz/vert overscan crop enabled w/ composite-direct-fbx pallete
  • Retroarch Picodrive (SMS/32X) Emulator preconfigured for 4:3 with 1X Sega Mastersystem & 1X Sega 32X resolution
  • Retroarch Gambatte (GB/GBC) emulator preset to Super Game Boy (Special 1 Pallete) mode with 2x integer scale SGB Overlay
  • Retroarch mGBA (GBA) emulator preset to Game Boy Player mode with 2x integer scale GBP Overlay
  • Other Retroarch handheld emulators preset for optimized wide display with overlay
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's RetroPie menu icons
  • Emulationstation preloaded with Ruckage's snes-mini theme configured for 4:3
  • Custom ScummVM system artwork for snes-mini theme
  • Emulationstation systems ordered chronologically instead of alphabetically
  • Emulationstation preconfigured with best settings for analog A/V including best settings for video preview screensavers
What is Run-Ahead?
The Run Ahead feature calculates the frames as fast as possible in the background to "rollback" the action as close as possible to the input command requested.
I've enabled run-ahead on most of the 8 & 16-bit consoles and handhelds. A single frame (and using the second instance) is saved here, which dramatically improves input lag without affecting performance on a Pi3B+. More frames would require more hardware power, and may be achievable via overclocking.
lr-snes9x2010 consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-fceumm consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz lr-beetle-pce-fast consistent 60.1-60.2 @ 60.000000hz lr-genesis-gx-plus consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (both genesis and sega cd) lr-picodrive consistent 59.9-60.2 FPS @ 59.922741hz (master system, game gear, and 32X) lr-gambatte consistent 60.0-60.2 FPS @ 60.098801hz (SGB2 framerate) lr-mgba consistent 59.8-60.4 FPS @ 60.002220hz (Gamecube framerate) 
Runahead Tested ~60FPS Stable:
  • Game Gear
  • Game Boy
  • Game Boy Color
  • Game Boy Advance
  • Master System
  • Megadrive
  • NES
  • PC Engine
  • PCE-CD
  • Sega 32X
  • Sega CD
  • SNES
Runahead Tested < 50FPS Unstable:
  • FB Neo
  • FB Alpha
  • Mame
  • N64
  • PlayStation
  • PSP
Runahead Untested:
  • Atari 800
  • Atari 2600
  • Atari 5200
  • Atari 7800
  • Atari Lynx
  • Coleco
  • Intellivision
  • MSX
What Does This NOT Have?
This doesn't have any ROMs (other than freeware test suites), BIOS files, music, screenshots, metadata, or videos concerning copywritten games. Other than the configurations and overlays, it has nothing that can't be downloaded through the repository or freeware.
Where Can I Get It?
You can download a premade image from Drive:
NOTE: Please expand your file system via Raspi-Config after your first boot, and reboot!
CRTPi4-RCA NTSC v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 60hz
MD5: 7df8453c2e8029b06def7864351ec768 
CRTPi4-RCA PAL-D v3.4F: For Raspberry Pi4 Composite-Out @ 50hz
MD5: ab2bd6ab228bd6f58a22de15044fb46a 
How do I install the Arcade Configuration Pack?
These are the resolution-correct preset arcade configs for MAME/FBA including vertical games. There is roughly 38K files in there, spread out across several systems (arcade, fba, mame-libretro, and neogeo). Having these pre-installed would not allow either image to fit on the SD card used, and may not be needed for everyone. It's a fairly simple process that won't take more than a few minutes of your time.
  • Drop to shell or connect via SSH, and navigate to root (cd /)
  • Download the CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip with the command:
    sudo wget https://github.com/crtpi/CRTPi-Project/raw/masteCRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Unzip and overwrite files with the command:
    sudo unzip -o -q CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Remove the zip with the command
    sudo rm CRTPi-RCA_ArcadePack.zip
  • Restore read/write access to the files you have overwritten with the command:
    sudo chmod a+rw -R /opt/retropie/configs/
How can I take full advantage of the 480i/240p Switching?
To force 480i for a system or game, you can create a '480i.txt' file inside the configuration folder of the system with a list of the file names (case insensitive, extension optional but recommended) you want to force.
If you wish to force 480i for a whole system, you can write "all" inside the '480i.txt' file.
Alternatively you can create a "240p.txt" file to force 480i to all games except for the ones inside the list.
You can read more about the script functionality here.
Example:
/opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" to force 480i for the file "Bloody Roar 2.PBP" /opt/retropie/configs/psx/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i for all the PlayStation games. /opt/retropie/configs/ports/kodi/480i.txt containing "all" to force 480i on Kodi. 
I have X Issue! Help?
Why isn't there a Pi4 PAL version?
Try as I might, I have been unable to get a PAL signal out of the SDTV port on a Pi4. My BVM displays PAL-S and PAL-D fine, but neither will get anything but static. I don't even get a rolling B&W image, just horrible static. If you figure out a way, let me know!
I only have like 500mb of free space on my XXgb SD card!
You need to expand your file system via Raspi-Config. Follow these steps.
I want to switch back to lr-mupen64plus!
  • When launching an n64 game, mash buttons on the controller until the runcommand window comes up.
  • Select on "1 Set default emulator for n64" and choose "lr-mupen64plus"
  • Then "Q Exit (without launching)"
  • Launch the game again -- it will launch in the chosen emulator at the proper resolution
What A/V cable should I use for 3.5mm Composite?
I recommend the Zune A/V cable or XBOX 360E cable, you can find them on eBay and Amazon.
Samba Share won't work after I set up Wi-Fi!
Samba share service starts on boot, pending that a network is available. Configure your Wi-Fi then reboot first, and if that doesn't fix it then go into Retropie Setup > Configuration/Tools > Samba > Install Samba. Once it's complete, reboot and it should be golden.
USB-Romservice and/or Retropie-Mount don't work!
Follow this guide, but follow these steps before plugging in your thumb drive:
  • Go to Retropie-Setup
  • Update retropie install script
  • Go to Manage Packages -> Optional Packages
  • Scroll all the way down to usbromservice
  • Uninstall usbromservice
  • Install it again from Binary
  • Once finished, choose Configuration, then Enable USB Romservice
  • Reboot, and wait for it to fully boot in to ES
  • Plug in USB stick (has to be FAT32) and WAIT A LONG TIME (if your stick has a light, wait for it to stop flashing)
submitted by ErantyInt to crtgaming [link] [comments]

A complete guide of and debunking of audio on Linux, ALSA and Pulse

Hey fellow penguins,
A few days ago, an user asked about audio quality on Linux, and whether it is worse or better than audio on Windows. The thread became a mess quickly, full of misconceptions and urban myths about Linux. I figured it would be worthwhile to create a complete guide to Linux audio, as well as dispelling some myths and misconceptions.
To all be on the same page, this is going to be thorough, slowly introducing more concepts.

What is sound? How and what can I hear?

You might remember from high school that sound is waves traveling through the air. Vibrations of any kind cause molecules in the air to move. When that wave form finds your ears, it causes little hairs in your ear to move. Different hairs are susceptible to different frequencies, and the signals sent by these hairs are turned into sound you hear by your brain.
In reality it is a little more complicated, but for the sake of this post, that's all you need to know.
The pitch of sound comes from its frequency, the 'shorter' the waves are in a waveform, the higher the sound. The volume of sound comes from how 'tall' the waves are. Human hearing sits in a range between 20Hz and 20,000 Hz, though it deviates per person. Being the egocentric species we are, waves below 20 Hz are called 'infrasound' and waves above 20kHz are called 'ultrasound.' Almost no humans can hear beyond ultrasound, you will find that your hearing probably cuts off at 16kHz.
To play around with this, check out this tone generator, you can prove anything above with this yourself. As a fun fact: human hearing is actually really bad, we've among the most limited frequency ranges. A cat can hear up to 40kHz, and dolphins can even hear up to 160kHz!!
FACT: Playing loud music is dangerous! If you listen to music and you are feeling a discomfort, you should turn the volume down. A true alert is when you hear a beep - this is called tinnitus, and that beep you're hearing is pretty much the death cry of the cells that can hear that frequency. That beep is the last time you will hear that very specific frequency ever again. Please, listening to loud music is not worth the permanent hearing damage, please dial it down for your own sake! <3

How does my computer generate sound?

To listen to sound, you will probably be using headphones or speakers, inside of them are cones that are driven by an electromagnet, causing them to vibrate at very precise frequencies. This is essentially how sound works, though modern headphones certainly can be pretty complex.
To drive that magnet, an audio source will send an analog signal (a waveform) over a wire to the driver, causing it to move at the frequency of that waveform. This is in essence how audio playback works; and we're not going to get into it much deeper than this.
Computers are digital - which is to say, they don't do analog; processors understand ON and OFF, they do not understand 38.689138% OFF and 78.21156% ON. When converting an analog signal (like sound) to a digital one, we make use of a format called PCM. For PCM to be turned into an analog signal, you need a DAC - or as you probably know it: a sound card. DAC stands for 'Digital to Analog Converter', or some people mistakenly call it "Digital Audio ConverteChip"
PCM stands for Pulse-code Modulation, which is a way to represent sampled analog signals in a digital format. We're not going to get into it too much here, but imagine taking a sample of a waveform at regular intervals and storing the value, and then rounding that value to a nearest 'step' (remember this). That's PCM.
The fidelity of PCM comes from two elements, which we are going to discuss next: sampling rate and bit depth.

What is sampling rate? Or: HOW SOUND GOOD?

Sampling rate is the most important part of making PCM sound good. Remember how humans hear in a range of 20Hz to 20kHz? The sample rate of audio has a lot to do with this. You cannot capture high frequencies if you do not capture samples often enough. Since our ears can hear up to 20 kHz, you would imagine that 20kHz would be ideal for capturing audio; however, a result of sampling is that you actually need twice the sample rate, this is called the Nyquist-Sannon sampling theorem, which is a complicated thing. Just understand that to reproduce a 20kHz frequency, you need a sample rate of 40kHz.
To have a little bit of room and leeway, we settled on a sample rate of 48kHz (a multiple of 8) for playback, and 96kHz for recording. We record at this frequency only to make sure absolutely no data is lost. You might be more familiar with 44.1kHz for audio, which is a standard we settled on for CD playback and NTSC. A lot of scientific research has been done on sound quality, and there is no evidence to suggest people can tell the difference between 48kHz or anything higher.
MYTH BUST: Humans cannot hear beyond 20 kHz, period. Anyone who claims to be able to is either supernatural or lying to you - I'll let you choose which.

What is bit-depth? Or: HOW IT MAKE SOUND REALLY NICE?

Remember how I told you to remember that PCM rounds values to the nearest step? This has to do with how binary works. The more bits, the bigger the number you can store. In PCM, the bit-depth decides the number of bits of information in each sample. With 16-bit, the range of values that can be stored is 0 to 65535. Going beyond this is pointless for humans, with no scientific research showing any proven benefit, though marketeers would like you to believe there's benefits.
MYTH BUST: 24-bit depth is often touted as 'high-resolution audio', claiming benefits of a better sonic experience. Such is nothing more than marketing speech, there is no meaningful data 24-bit can capture that 16-bit cannot.

Channels? Or: HOW IT CAN MAKE SOUND IN LEFT BUT NOT RIGHT?

We'll briefly touch on the last part of PCM audio, channels. This is very self explanatory, humans have two ears and can hear separate sounds on both of them, which means we have stereo hearing. As a result, most music is recorded with 2 channels. For some surround settings, you need more channels, this is why you may have heard of 5.1 or 7.1; the first digit is the amount of channels the PCM carries.
For most desktop usage, the only sound we care about is 2-channel PCM.

Recap

So, we've covered all the elements of PCM sound. Let's go over it quickly: sample rate is expressed in Hz and is how often a sample of a waveform is captured, representing the x-axis of a waveform. Bit-depth is the bits of information stored in each sample, and represents the y-axis of the waveform. Channels decide how many simultaneous outputs the PCM can drive separately, since we have 2 ears, you need at least two channels.
As a result, the standard audio playback for both consumers and professionals is 48kHz, 16-bit, 2 channel PCM. This is more than enough to fully represent the full range of human hearing.

How it works in Linux

So, now that we know how PCM works, how does Linux make sound? How can you make Linux sound great? A few important components come into play here, and we'll need to discuss each of them in some detail.

ALSA

ALSA is the interface to the kernel's sound driver. ALSA can take a PCM signal and send it to your hardware by talking to the driver. Something important to know about most DACs is that they can only take one signal at a time, actually. That means that only a single application can send sound to ALSA at once. Long ago, in a darker time, you couldn't watch a movie while listening to music!
This problem was solved a long time ago with the use of alsalib, but doing mixing at a library level isn't a very good solution to the problem. This gave rise to sound servers, of which many have existed. Before PulseAudio, esound was a very popular one but had many problems, eventually it was succeeded by PulseAudio.

PulseAudio

When you think audio on Linux, PulseAudio is probably among the first things you think of. PulseAudio is NOT a driver, nor does it talk to your drivers. Actually, PulseAudio only does two things that we'll discuss in detail later. PulseAudio talks to ALSA, taking control of its single audio stream, and allows other applications to talk to PulseAudio instead. Pulse is an 'audio multiplexer', turning multiple signals into one through a process that is called mixing. Mixing is an incredibly complicated subject that we won't talk about here.
To be able to mix sounds, one must make sure that all the PCM sources are in the same format (the one that's being sent to ALSA); if the PCM format being sent to Pulse does not match the PCM format being sent to ALSA, pulse does a step before mixing it called resampling. Resampling is another very complicated subject that can turn a 8kHz, 4-bit, 1-channel PCM stream into a 24kHz, 24-bit, 2-channel PCM stream.
These two things allow you to play a game, listen to music and watch YouTube, and notifications to produce a sound all at the same time. PulseAudio is the most critical element of the Linux sound stack.
FACT: PulseAudio is a contentious subject, many people have a dislike for this particular bit of software. In all honesty, PulseAudio was brought to the general public in a bit of a premature state, breaking audio for many people. PulseAudio these days is a very stable, solid piece of software. If you have audio issues these days, it's usually a problem in ALSA or your driver.

What about JACK and PipeWire?

PulseAudio isn't the only sound servedaemon available for Linux, though it is certainly the most popular and most likely the default of whatever distribution you are using. PulseAudio has become a bit of a standard for Linux sound and has by far the best compatibility with most applications, but that doesn't mean there aren't alternatives.
JACK (JACK Audio Connection Kit, a recursive acronym like GNU) is a sound server focused primarily on low latency. If you are doing professional audio work on Linux, you will already be very familiar with JACK. JACK's development is very focused on low latency, real-time audio and is critical for such people. JACK is available on most distros as an alternative, and you can try it for yourself if you so want; but you might find some applications do not work nicely with JACK.
PipeWire is a project that is currently in development, looking to solve key problems that exist in current sound servers. PipeWire isn't just a sound server but also handles the multiplexing of video sources (like a camera). Special attention has been put into working with sandboxed applications (like Flatpaks), which is an area where PulseAudio is lacking. PipeWire is a very promising project that might very well succeed PulseAudio in the future and you should expect to see appearing in distribution repositories very soon. You can try it yourself right now, though it isn't quite as easy to get started with as JACK is.
More audio servers exist, but are beyond the scope of this post.

What is resampling?

Resampling is the process of turning a PCM stream into another PCM stream of a different resolution. Your DAC only accepts a limited range of PCM signals, and it is up to the software to make sure the PCM stream is compatible. There is almost no DAC out there that doesn't support 44.1kHz, 16-bit, 2-channel PCM, so this tends to be the default. When you play an audio source (like an OggVorbis file), the PCM stream might be 96kHz, 24-bit, 2-channel PCM.
To fix that, PulseAudio will use a resampling algorithm. There are two kinds of resampling methods: upsampling and downsampling. Upsamling is lossless, since you can always represent less data with more data. Downsampling is lossy by definition, you cannot represent 24-bit PCM with 16-bit PCM.
MYTH: Downsampling is a loss in quality! This is only true in a technical sense, or if you are downsampling to less than 48kHz, 16-bit PCM. When you downsample a 96kHz, 24-bit PCM stream to a 48kHz, 16-bit stream, no meaningful data is lost in the process; because the discarded data lies outside of the human ear's hearing range.
FACT: Resampling is expensive. Good quality resampling algorithms actually take a non-trivial amount of processing power. PulseAudio defaults to a resampling method with a good balance between CPU time used and quality.

What is mixing?

Mixing is the process of taking two PCM streams and combining them into one. This is extremely complicated and not something we're going to discuss at length. It is not important to understand how this works, only to understand that it exists. Without mixing, you wouldn't be able to hear sounds from multiple sources. This is true not just for PulseAudio and computer sound, this is true for anything. In real life, you might use an A/V receiver to accept sound from your TV and music player at once, the receiver then mixes the signals and plays it through your speakers.

What is encoding?

Finally we can talk a little about encoding. Encoding is the process of taking a PCM stream and writing it to a permanent format, two types exist. You have lossy encoding and lossless encoding. Lossy encoding removes data from the PCM stream to safe space. Usually the discarded data is useless to you, and will not make a difference in sound quality; examples of lossy encoding are MP3, AAC and Ogg Vorbis. Lossless encoding takes a PCM stream and encodes it in such a way that no data is lost, examples of lossless encodings are FLAC, ALAC and WAV.
Note that lossy and lossless do not mean compressed and uncompressed. A lossless format can be compressed and usually is, as uncompressed lossless encoding would be very large; it would just be the raw PCM stream. An example of lossless uncompressed audio is WAV.
A new element encodings bring is their bit rate, not to be confused with samplerate and bit depth. Bit rate has to do with how much data is stored in every second of audio. For a lossless, uncompressed PCM stream this is easy to calculate with the formula bit rate = sample rate * bit depth * channels, for 16-bit, 48kHz, 2 channel PCM this is 1,5 Mbit. To get the value in bytes, divide by 8, thus 192kB per second.
The bit rate of an encoder means how much the audio will be compressed. PCM compression is super complicated, but it generally involves discarding silence, cutting off frequencies you cannot hear, and so forth. Radio encoding has a bit rate of roughly 128 Kbps, while most CDs have a bit rate of 1360kbps.
Lastly, there is the concept of VBR and CBR. VBR stands for Variable Bit Rate, which CBR stands for Constant Bit Rate. In a VBR encoding, the encoder aim for a target bit rate that you set, but it can deviate if it thinks it needs more or less. CBR will encode a constant bit rate, and will never deviate.
MYTH: Lossless sounds better than lossy. This is blatantly untrue, lossless audio formats were created for perservation and archival reasons. When you encode a lossy file from a lossless source, and you make sure that it's a 48kHz, 16-bit PCM encoding, you will not lose any important information. What is enough depends on the quality of the encoder. For OggVorbis, 192kbps is sufficient, for MP3, 256kbps should be preferred. 320kbps is excessive and the highest quality supported by MP3. In general, 256kbps does the trick, but with storage being abundant these days, you can play it safe and use 320kbps if it makes you feel better.
MYTH: CBR is better than VBR. There is no reason not to use VBR at all, there is no point in writing 256Kbps of data if there is only silence or a constant tone. Let your encoder do what it does best!
FACT: Encoding a lossy format to another lossy format will result in a loss of data! You will compress data that is already compressed, which is really bad. When encoding to a lossy format, always use a high quality recording in a lossless format as the source!
I DON'T BELIEVE YOU: This article from the guys Xiph (the people who brought you FLAC and Ogg Vorbis) explain it better than I can: https://people.xiph.org/%7Exiphmont/demo/neil-young.html

TL;DR, I JUST WANT THE BEST SOUND QUALITY

Here is a quick guide to achieving great sound quality on Linux with the above in mind.
As you can see, there's little you can do in Linux in the first place, so what can you do if you want better sound?
MYTH: Linux sound quality is worse than Windows. They are exactly the same, Pulse doesn't work that different from how Windows does mixing and resampling.
MYTH: Linux sound quality can be better than Windows. They are exactly the same. All improvements in quality come from the driver and your DAC, not the sound server. Pulse and ALSA do not touch the PCM beyond moving it around and resampling it.
I hope this (long) guide was of help to you, and helped to dispell some myths. Did I miss anything? Ask or let me know, and I'll answer the best I can. Did I make any factual errors? Please correct me with a source and I'll amend the post immediately.
submitted by _Spell_ to linux [link] [comments]

An electrical engineers opinion on the Librem 5.

Hello everyone. In light of the most recent update, "Supplying the Demand", I would like to share my opinions on the current state of this device.
The following is some basic info of my background. You are free to criticize any and all aspects of this post.
  1. I am an electrical engineer who specializes in digital signal processing (DSP), systems (debug), and comms.
  2. I currently work at a large company that operates in the cell phone industry. My roll is within a 5G research/testing department.
  3. This is my main Reddit account which is reasonably old and active. I typically lurk a lot and rarely post.
  4. My knowledge of programing is very limited. I preform 95% of my job functions with Python and Matlab. This will be a hardware and systems level discussion of the Librem 5.
The CEO of Purism, Mr. Todd Weaver, outlined three major problem areas within the current iteration of the Librem 5: Thermals, Power, and Reception. Let us go through these in order.
=========================================================
Thermals:
Thermals and power are closely intertwined so let's only focus on Purism's options to fix thermals, assuming they make no changes to improve power consumption. Given that the Librem 5 is (thankfully) a thick device, I see no reason why Purism would not be able to fix the thermal issues. In a worst case scenario, they would have to redo the motherboard layout, add some thermal pads/paste, and maybe add a thin yet expensive copper vapor chamber. This would result in a worst case scenario of a possible delay and additional bill of material cost of 20-30 dollars. In my opinion, the thermal problems are solvable and within reach.
Power:
Because of the strict requirements Purism placed on the goals of this device (regarding binary blobs), they have chosen modem(s) that were not designed for this use case. All four variants of the offered modems by both modem vendors (Gemalto and Broadmobi) are internet of things (IOT) class chips. From an EE perspective, these modems are fine in the right context.
Industrial communication with large equipment (shipping yards)?
Great.
Vending machine credit card processing?
Also Great.
A mobile device (UE) that users will be moving around (mobility) and expecting good reception on a strict power budget?
And thus we arrive at the root of the power and reception issues. I am going to talk about reception in it's own section so lets talk power.
The large modem vendors in the smartphone space (Qualcomm, Samsung, Huwawei/HiSillicon, MediaTek, Intel) spend an huge amount of time and effort on power management features. Not only is logic level hardware design done with power in mind, but once the chip is fully taped out, months of effort by 100's of engineers is sunk to improve power characteristics via firmware development and testing. As much as we all hate binary blobs that may (probably) spy on us, these companies have good reason to keep their firmware (and thus power saving IP) secret. Significant competitive advantages are created between the modem vendors from this firmware and digital logic level power savings effort.
When a company markets their modem as "IOT", they are effectively admitting that little to no effort was done to keep chip power in check. In the example IOT applications I mentioned (vending machine's and large industrial equipment), power does not matter. The devices themselves draw far more power than the modem that will be inside. Space is not a concern. So companies making IOT products with these modems simply ignore the power draw and slap on a large heat-sink. From lurking on linux and /Purism , I have seem others call out the modems without going in depth to why these products even exist. Yes, the specifications and capabilities of these modems are far lower. So be it. I think all of use are fine with "100 MBit" peak down-link (reality will be 10-20). The problem is that these chips were not designed for power efficiency and never intended to be in a small compact device. You would not put the engine of a Prius into a flatbed truck. The engineers at Toyota never intended for a Prius engine to go inside such a vehicle. The same situation has happened here.
Now on to how Purism can fix this power problem. With a herculean effort, the firmware developers employed by Purism (and hopefully some community members) can improve power characteristics. I suspect Purism employees have spent most of their time getting the modem firmware and RF-fronted SW into a functional state. There was a blog post somewhere where a Purism employee brought up a call over the air (OTA). I can't find it but that was by far the most important milestone of their effort. Getting past RACH and acquiring a base-station OTA is huge in the industry. The first phase of binary blob development is predominately focused on integrating features while avoiding attach failures and BLER issues. In this first phase, power saving features are typically disabled to make everything else easier to debug. It is safe to say that the Purism employees have neither had the time nor the resources to even start on modem/RF power saving features. Again, in my opinion, the power problem can be solved but this will be a huge massive incredible exhausting undertaking.
Reception:
As I have explained above, IOT-class modems are not designed for, and do not care for certain features. Certain features are really necessary for a regular smartphone (henceforth refereed to as a "UE") to function well. Some examples are:
  1. Mobility. The ability of a UE to switch to new base-stations as the user travels (walking, driving, whatever). This is distinct from the ability of the UE to attach (pass RACH msg 4) to a cell tower from boot or a total signal loss.
  2. Compatibility with all LTE bands. This is why Purism has to support four modems and why you the user will likely to have a somewhat unpleasant time setting things up.
  3. Interoperability testing vs Standards Regression Testing. Suppose that LTE specs can have 1000 different configurations for a cell network and towers within that network. Large modem vendors rigorously test 100's of possible configurations, even if the carriers (Verizon, Sprint, China Mobil, ...) and the base-station vendors (Huwawei, Nokia, Ericsson, ...) only use a few dozen possible configurations. This means that niche bugs are unfortunately likely to show up.
  4. Low-SNR performance. Companies who deploy these modems either place their devices in physical locations that get good SNR (20 dBm ish) or they just attach a giant antenna to get an extra 6-10 dB gain. Users of cellular devices want to still have basic connectivity for voice calls, SMS texts, and notification batches... even if the SNR is bad (1-bar ~= 7 dB SNR; NOTE: EE's use SNR and SINR interchangeably based on background) users still expect basic functionality. IOT modems do not have the hardware blocks to handle low-SNR signals. This is to keep the chip small and cheap. Some DSP tricks like higher order filter banks, over-sampling, and many other linear algebra tricks likely can not run on the modem in real time, rendering them useless. (wireless channel coherence is often quite short)
What concerns me the most is that in the "Supplying the Demand" post, Mr. Weaver only implies that there is a reception issue by very briefly mentioning an "antenna routing" problem. I do not find the claim plausible. UE base-band antennas are typically PIFA, patch, or Log periodic in design. Depending on many factors which are beyond my knowledge, you can get around 6-15 dB of gain from antennas alone. Even though I am a DSP engineer, my job requires me to have a surface level knowledge of antenna radiation patterns. Up front, I can tell you that antenna placement can not and is not a issue. In the Librem 5 batches that do not have metal construction. There should be zero problems. Plastic does not interfere with radio waves enough to cause more than 1-1.5 dB loss in the absolute worst case. In the devices with metal bodies, there should be no issue anyway because of antenna bands. The image I linked is a modern ultra-high end device where you can easily see two thin rectangular plastic antenna bands. There is a reason modern antenna bands are so small: it has become incredibly easy (and thus cheep) to mass produce highly directive antennas. This is especially true for for designs intended for UE's. As a student working in a lab on campus, we had a tight budget and needed to buy antennas for a system we were building. For legal reasons, we were operating on the 1.3 GHz band. Unfortunately, this was impossible because all the "off the shelf" (and very cheap) antennas were designed for various cell phone bands. We ended up ordering a custom design (Gerber files from a fellow student) and fabricated 150 large PIFA antennas for ~$100.
In summary, this large paragraph is a justification for the following strong opinion. I believe there may be serious reception issues with the Liberm 5. These reception issues are not related to antennas. Mr. Weavers in-passing and extremely brief mention of "antenna routing" issues may be the tip for the (reception/SNR) iceberg.
=========================================================
I want to make clear that I do not hold ill will against Purism or FOSS mobile efforts. I absolutely hate that any activity on my smartphone goes directly to Google. For years, I have been holing onto a 100-200 dollar class smartphone because use of said device must be kept to a minimum to protect my privacy (I try to keep all my online activity on a laptop that I control). However, this entire post is an opinionated criticism of Purism's hardware choices. At the end of the day, a cellular device that truly protects your privacy (with potential serious hardware and reception issues) is no different than a Android or iOS phone which has had its antennas and RF cards ripped out. A smartphone is only useful when it can be used. Otherwise, a laptop on a WiFi connection with VoIP (and a VPN) will be objectively more useful.
submitted by parakeetfour to linux [link] [comments]

Comprehensive Guide for getting into Home Recording

I'm going to borrow from a few sources and do my best to make this cohesive, but this question comes up a lot. I thought we had a comprehensive guide, but it doesn't appear so. In the absence of this, I feel that a lot of you could use a simple place to go for some basics on recording. There are a couple of great resources online already on some drumming forums, but I don't think they will be around forever.
Some background on myself - I have been drumming a long time. During that time, home recording has gone from using a cassette deck to having a full blown studio at your finger tips. The technology in the last 15 years has gotten so good it really is incredible. When I was trying to decide what I wanted to do with my life, I decided to go to school for audio engineering in a world-class studio. During this time I had access to the studio and was able to assist with engineering on several projects. This was awesome, and I came out with a working knowledge of SIGNAL CHAIN, how audio works in the digital realm, how microphones work, studio design, etc. Can I answer your questions? Yes.

First up: Signal Chain! This is the basic building block of recording. Ever seen a "I have this plugged in but am getting no sound!" thread? Yeah, signal chain.

A "Signal Chain" is the path your audio follows, from sound source, to the recording device, and back out of your monitors (speakers to you normies).
A typical complete signal chain might go something like this:
1] instrument/sound source 2] Microphone/TransducePickup 3] Cable 4] Mic Preamp/DI Box 5] Analog-to-Digital Converter 6] Digital transmission medium[digital data get recoded for usb or FW transfer] 7] Digital recording Device 8] DSP and Digital summing/playback engine 9] Digital-to-Analog Converter 10] Analog output stage[line outputs and output gain/volume control] 11] Monitors/Playback device[headphones/other transducers]
Important Terms, Definitions, and explanations (this will be where the "core" information is):
1] AD Conversion: the process by which the electrical signal is "converted" to a stream of digital code[binary, 1 and 0]. This is accomplished, basically, by taking digital pictures of the audio...and this is known as the "sampling rate/frequency" The number of "pictures" determines the frequency. So the CD standard of 44.1k is 44,100 "pictures" per second of digital code that represents the electrical "wave" of audio. It should be noted that in order to reproduce a frequency accuratly, the sampling rate must be TWICE that of the desired frequency (See: Nyquist-Shannon Theorem). So, a 44.1 digital audio device can, in fact, only record frequencies as high as 22.05khz, and in the real world, the actual upper frequency limit is lower, because the AD device employs a LOW-PASS filter to protect the circuitry from distortion and digital errors called "ALIASING." Confused yet? Don't worry, there's more... We haven't even talked about Bit depth! There are 2 settings for recording digitally: Sample Rate and Bit Depth. Sample rate, as stated above, determines the frequencies captured, however bit depth is used to get a better picture of the sample. Higher bit depth = more accurate sound wave representation. More on this here. Generally speaking, I record at 92KHz/24 bit depth. This makes huge files, but gets really accurate audio. Why does it make huge files? Well, if you are sampling 92,000 times per second, you are taking each sample and applying 24 bits to that, multiply it out and you get 92,000*24 = 2,208,000 bits per second or roughly 0.26MB per second for ONE TRACK. If that track is 5 minutes long, that is a file that is 78.96MB in size. Now lets say you used 8 inputs on an interface, that is, in total, 631.7MB of data. Wow, that escalates quick, right? There is something else to note as well here: Your CPU has to calculate this. So the amount of calculations it needs to perform for this same scenario is ~17.7 million calculations PER SECOND. This is why CPU speed and RAM is super important when recording digitally.
2] DA conversion: the process by which the digital code (the computer representation of a sound wave) is transformed back into electrcal energy in the proper shape. In a oversimplified explanation, the code is measured and the output of the convertor reflects the value of the code by changing voltage. Think of a sound wave on a grid: Frequency would represent the X axis (the horizontal axis)... but there is a vertical axis too. This is called AMPLITUDE or how much energy the wave is generating. People refer to this as how 'loud' a sound is, but that's not entirely correct. You can have a high amplitude wave that is played at a quiet volume. It's important to distinguish the two. How loud a sound is can be controlled by the volume on a speaker or transducer. But that has no impact on how much amplitude the sound wave has in the digital space or "in the wire" on its way to the transducer. So don't get hung up on how "loud" a waveform is, it is how much amplitude it has when talking about it "in the box" or before it gets to the speakeheadphone/whatever.
3] Cables: An often overlooked expense and tool, cables can in fact, make or break your recording. The multitudes of types of cable are determined by the connector, the gauge(thickness), shielding, type of conductor, etc... Just some bullet points on cables:
- Always get the highest quality cabling you can afford. Low quality cables often employ shielding that doesnt efectively protect against AC hums(60 cycle hum), RF interference (causing your cable to act as a gigantic AM/CB radio antenna), or grounding noise introduced by other components in your system. - The way cables are coiled and treated can determine their lifespan and effectiveness. A kinked cable can mean a broken shield, again, causing noise problems. - The standard in the USA for wiring an XLR(standard microphone) cable is: PIN 1= Cold/-, PIN 2= Hot/+, PIN 3=Ground/shield. Pin 3 carries phantom power, so it is important that the shield of your cables be intact and in good condition if you want to use your mic cables without any problems. - Cables for LINE LEVEL and HI-Z(instrument level) gear are not the same! - Line Level Gear, weather professional or consumer, should generally be used with balanced cables (on a 1/4" connector, it will have 3 sections and is commonly known as TRS -or- TipRingSleeve). A balanced 1/4" is essentially the same as a microphone cable, and in fact, most Professional gear with balanced line inputs and outputs will have XLR connectors instead of 1/4" connectors. - Hi-Z cable for instruments (guitars, basses, keyboards, or anything with a pickup) is UNBALANCED, and should be so. The introduction of a balanced cable can cause electricity to be sent backwards into a guitar and shock the guitar player. You may want this to happen, but your gear doesn't. There is some danger here as well, especially on stage, where the voltage CAN BE LETHAL. When running a guitabass/keyboard "Direct" into your interface, soundcard, or recording device, you should ALWAYS use a "DIRECT BOX", which uses a transformer to isolate and balance the the signal or you can use any input on the interface designated as a "Instrument" or "Hi-Z" input. It also changes some electrical properties, resulting in a LINE LEVEL output (it amplifies it from instrument level to line level).
4] Digital Data Transmissions: This includes S/PDIF, AES/EBU, ADAT, MADI. I'm gonna give a brief overview of this stuff, since its unlikely that alot of you will ever really have to think about it: - SDPIF= Sony Phillips Digital Interface Format. using RCA or TOSLINK connectors, this is a digital protocol that carries 3 streams of information. Digital audio Left, Digital Audio Right, and CLOCK. SPDIF generally supports 48khz/20bit information, though some modern devices can support up to 24bits, and up to 88.2khz. SPDIF is the consumer format of AES/EBU - AES/EBU= Audio Engineering Society/European Breadcasters Union Digital protocol uses a special type of cable often terminated with XLR connectors to transmit 2 channels of Digital Audio. AES/EBU is found mostly on expensive professional digital gear. - ADAT= the Alesis Digital Audio Tape was introduced in 1991, and was the first casette based system capable of recording 8 channels of digital audio onto a single cartridge(a SUPER-VHS tape, same one used by high quality VCR's). Enough of the history, its not so important because we are talking about ADAT-LIGHTPIPE Protocol, which is a digital transmission protocol that uses fiberoptic cable and devices to send up to 8 channels of digital audio simultaneously and in sync. ADAT-Lightpipe supports up to 48khz sample rates. This is how people expand the number of inputs by chaining interfaces. - MADI is something you will almost never encounter. It is a protocol that allows up to 64 channels of digital audio to be transmitted over a single cable that is terminated by BNC connectors. Im just telling you it exists so in case you ever encounter a digital snake that doesnt use Gigabit Ethernet, you will know whats going on.
digital transmission specs: SPDIF -> clock->2Ch->RCA cable(consumer) ADAT-Lightpipe->clock->8Ch->Toslink(semi-pro) SPDIF-OPTICAL->clock->2Ch->Toslink(consumer) AES/EBU->clock->2Ch->XLR(Pro) TDIF->clock->8Ch->DSub(Semi-Pro) ______________ MADI->no clock->64Ch->BNC{rare except in large scale pofessional apps} SDIF-II->no clock->24Ch->DSub{rare!} AES/EBU-13->no clock->24Ch->DSub
5] MICROPHONES: There are many types of microphones, and several names for each type. The type of microphone doesn't equate to the polar pattern of the microphone. There are a few common polar patterns in microphones, but there are also several more that are less common. These are the main types- Omni-Directional, Figure 8 (bi-directional), Cardioid, Super Cardioid, Hyper Cardioid, Shotgun. Some light reading.... Now for the types of microphones: - Dynamic Microphones utilize polarized magnets to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. there are 2 types of dynamic microphones: 1) Moving Coil microphones are the most common type of microphone made. They are also durable, and capable of handling VERY HIGH SPL (sound pressure levels). 2) Ribbon microphones are rare except in professional recording studios. Ribbon microphones are also incredibly fragile. NEVER EVER USE PHANTOM POWER WITH A RIBBON MICROPHONE, IT WILL DIE (unless it specifically requires it, but I've only ever seen this on one Ribbon microphone ever). Sometimes it might even smoke or shoot out a few sparks; applying phantom power to a Ribbon Microphone will literally cause the ribbon, which is normally made from Aluminum, to MELT. Also, windblasts and plosives can rip the ribbon, so these microphones are not suitible for things like horns, woodwinds, vocals, kick drums, or anything that "pushes air." There have been some advances in Ribbon microphones and they are getting to be more common, but they are still super fragile and you have to READ THE MANUAL CAREFULLY to avoid a $1k+ mistake. - CondenseCapacitor Microphones use an electrostatic charge to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. The movement of the diaphragm(often metal coated mylar) toward a ceramic "backplate" causes a fluctuation in the charge, which is then amplified inside the microphone and output as an electrical signal. Condenser microphones usually use phantom power to charge the capacitors' and backplate in order to maintain the electrostatic charge. There are several types of condenser microphones: 1) Tube Condenser Microphones: historically, this type of microphone has been used in studios since the 1940s, and has been refined and redesigned hundreds, if not thousands of times. Some of the "best sounding" and most desired microphones EVER MADE are Tube Condenser microphones from the 50's and 60's. These vintage microphones, in good condition, with the original TUBES can sell for hundreds of thousands of dollars. Tube mics are known for sounding "full", "warm", and having a particular character, depending on the exact microphone. No 2 tubes mics, even of the same model, will sound the same. Similar, but not the same. Tube mics have their own power supplies, which are not interchangeable to different models. Each tube mic is a different design, and therefore, has different power requirements. 2) FET Condenser microphones: FET stands for "Field Effect Transistor" and the technology allowed condenser microphones to be miniturized. Take for example, the SHURE beta98s/d, which is a minicondenser microphone. FET technology is generally more transparant than tube technology, but can sometimes sound "harsh" or "sterile". 3) Electret Condenser Microphones are a condenser microphone that has a permanent charge, and therefore, does not require phantom power; however, the charge is not truly permanent, and these mics often use AA or 9V batteries, either inside the mic, or on a beltpack. These are less common.
Other important things to know about microphones:
- Pads, Rolloffs, etc: Some mics have switches or rotating collars that notate certain things. Most commonly, high pass filters/lowcut filters, or attenuation pads. 1) A HP/LC Filter does exactly what you might think: Removes low frequency content from the signal at a set frequency and slope. Some microphones allow you to switch the rolloff frequency. Common rolloff frequencies are 75hz, 80hz, 100hz, 120hz, 125hz, and 250hz. 2) A pad in this example is a switch that lowers the output of the microphone directly after the capsule to prevent overloading the input of a microphone preamplifier. You might be asking: How is that possible? Some microphones put out a VERY HIGH SIGNAL LEVEL, sometimes about line level(-10/+4dbu), mic level is generally accepted to start at -75dbu and continues increasing until it becomes line level in voltage. It should be noted that linel level signals are normally of a different impedance than mic level signals, which is determined by the gear. An example for this would be: I mic the top of a snare drum with a large diaphragm condenser mic (solid state mic, not tube) that is capable of handling very high SPLs (sound pressure levels). When the snare drum is played, the input of the mic preamp clips (distorts), even with the gain turned all the way down. To combat this, I would use a pad with enough attenuation to lower the signal into the proper range of input (-60db to -40 db). In general, it is accepted to use a pad with only as much attentuation as you need, plus a small margin of error for extra “headroom”. What this means is that if you use a 20db pad where you only need a 10db pad, you will then have to add an additional 10db of gain to achieve a desireable signal level. This can cause problems, as not all pads sound good, or even transparent, and can color and affect your signal in sometimes unwanted ways that are best left unamplified. - Other mic tips/info: 1) when recording vocals, you should always use a popfilter. A pop filter mounted on a gooseneck is generally more effective than a windscreen made of foam that slips over the microphone. The foam type often kill the highfrequency response, alter the polar pattern, and can introduce non-linear polarity problems(part of the frequency spectrum will be out of phase.) If you don't have a pop filter or don't want to spend on one, buy or obtain a hoop of some kind, buy some cheap panty-hose and stretch it over the hoop to build your own pop filter. 2) Terms Related to mics: - Plosives: “B”, “D”, “F”, “G”, “J”, “P”, “T” hard consonants and other vocal sounds that cause windblasts. These are responsible for a low frequency pop that can severly distort the diaphragm of the microphone, or cause a strange inconsistency of tonality by causing a short term proximity effect.
- Proximity effect: An exponential increase in low frequency response causes by having a microphone excessivly close to a sound. This can be cause by either the force of the air moving actually causes the microphone’s diaphragm to move and sometimes distort, usually on vocalists or buy the buildup of low frequency soundwaves due to off-axis cancellation ports. You cannot get proximity effect on an omnidirectional microphone. With some practice, you can use proximity effect to your advantage, or as an effect. For example, if you are recording someone whispering and it sounds thin or weak and irritating due to the intenese high mid and high frequency content, get the person very close to a cardioid microphone with two popfilters, back to back approx 1/2”-1” away from the mic and set your gain carefully, and you can achieve a very intimite recording of whispering. In a different scenario, you can place a mic inside of a kick drum between 1”-3” away from the inner shell, angled up and at the point of impact, and towards the floor tom. This usually captures a huge low end, and the sympathetic vibration of the floor tom on the kick drum hits, but retains a clarity of attack without being distorted by the SPL of the drum and without capturing unplesant low-mid resonation of the kick drum head and shell that is common directly in the middle of the shell.
6) Wave Envelope: The envelope is the graphical representation of a sound wave commonly found in a DAW. There are 4 parts to this: Attack, Decay, Sustain, Release: 1) Attack is how quickly the sound reaches its peak amplitude; 2) Decay is the time it takes to reach the sustain level; 3) Sustain how long a sound remains at a certain level (think of striking a tom, the initial smack is attack, then it decays to the resonance of the tom, how long it resonates is the sustain); 4) Release is the amount of time before the sustain stops. This is particularly important as these are also the settings on a common piece of gear called a Compressor! Understanding the envelope of a sound is key to learning how to maniuplate it.
7) Phase Cancellation: This is one of the most important concepts in home recording, especially when looking at drums. I'm putting it in this section because it matters so much. Phase Cancellation is what occurs when the same frequencies occur at different times. To put it simply, frequency amplitudes are additive - meaning if you have 2 sound waves of the same frequency, one amplitude is +4 and the other is +2, the way we percieve sound is that the frequency is +6. But a sound wave has a positive and negative amplitude as it travels (like a wave in the ocean with a peak and a swell). If the frequency then has two sources and it is 180 degrees out of phase, that means one wave is at +4 while the other is at -4. This sums to 0, or cancels out the wave. Effectively, you would hear silence. This is why micing techniques are so important, but we'll get into that later. I wanted this term at the top, and will likely mention it again.

Next we can look at the different types of options to actually record your sound!

1) Handheld/All in one/Field Recorders: I don't know if portable cassette tape recorders are still around, but that's an example of one. These are (or used to) be very popular with journalists because they were pretty decent at capturing speech. They do not fare too well with music though. Not too long ago, we saw the emergence of the digital field recorder. These are really nifty little devices. They come in many shapes, sizes and colors, and can be very affordable. They run on batteries, and have built-in microphones, and record digitally onto SD cards or harddiscs. The more simple ones have a pair of built-in condenser microphones, which may or may not be adjustable, and record onto an SD-card. They start around $99 (or less if you don't mind buying refurbished). You turn it on, record, connect the device itself or the SD card to your computer, transfer the file(s) and there is your recording! An entry-level example is the Tascam DR-05. It costs $99. It has two built in omni-directional mics, comes with a 2GB microSD card and runs on two AA batteries. It can record in different formats, the highest being 24-bit 96KHz Broadcast WAV, which is higher than DVD quality! You can also choose to record as an MP3 (32-320kbps) if you need to save space on the SD card or if you're simply going to record a speech/conference or upload it on the web later on. It's got a headphone jack and even small built-in speakers. It can be mounted onto a tripod. And it's about the size of a cell phone. The next step up (although there are of course many options that are price and feature-wise inbetween this one and the last) is a beefier device like the Zoom H4n. It's got all the same features as the Tascam DR-05 and more! It has two adjustable built-in cardioid condenser mics in an XY configuration (you can adjust the angle from a 90-120 degree spread). On the bottom of the device, there are two XLR inputs with preamps. With those, you can expand your recording possibilities with two external microphones. The preamps can send phantom power, so you can even use very nice studio mics. All 4 channels will be recorded independantly, so you can pop them onto your computer later and mix them with software. This device can also act as a USB interface, so instead of just using it as a field recorder, you can connect it directly to your computer or to a DSLR camera for HD filming. My new recommendation for this category is actually the Yamaha EAD10. It really is the best all-in-one solution for anyone that wants to record their kit audio with a great sound. It sports a kick drum trigger (mounts to the rim of the kick) with an x-y pattern set of microphones to pick up the rest of the kit sound. It also has on-board effects, lots of software integration options and smart features through its app. It really is a great solution for anyone who wants to record without reading this guide.
The TL;DR of this guide is - if it seems like too much, buy the Yamaha EAD10 as a simple but effective recording solution for your kit.

2) USB Microphones: There are actually mics that you an plug in directly to your computer via USB. The mics themselves are their own audio interfaces. These mics come in many shapes and sizes, and offer affordable solutions for basic home recording. You can record using a DAW or even something simple like the stock windows sound recorder program that's in the acessories folder of my Windows operating system. The Blue Snowflake is very affordable at $59. It can stand alone or you can attach it to your laptop or your flat screen monitor. It can record up to 44.1kHz, 16-bit WAV audio, which is CD quality. It's a condenser mic with a directional cardioid pickup pattern and has a full frequency response - from 35Hz-20kHz. It probably won't blow you away, but it's a big departure from your average built-in laptop, webcam, headset or desktop microphone. The Audio Technica AT2020 USB is a USB version of their popular AT2020 condenser microphone. At $100 it costs a little more than the regular version. The AT2020 is one of the finest mics in its price range. It's got a very clear sound and it can handle loud volumes. Other companies like Shure and Samson also offer USB versions of some of their studio mics. The AT2020 USB also records up to CD-quality audio and comes with a little desktop tripod. The MXL USB.009 mic is an all-out USB microphone. It features a 1 inch large-diaphragm condenser capsule and can record up to 24-bit 96kHz WAV audio. You can plug your headphones right into the mic (remember, it is its own audio interface) so you can monitor your recordings with no latency, as opposed to doing so with your computer. Switches on the mic control the gain and can blend the mic channel with playback audio. Cost: $399. If you already have a mic, or you don't want to be stuck with just a USB mic, you can purcase a USB converter for your existing microphone. Here is a great review of four of them.
3) Audio Recording Interfaces: You've done some reading up on this stuff... now you are lost. Welcome to the wide, wide world of Audio Interfaces. These come in all different shapes and sizes, features, sampling rates, bit depths, inputs, outputs, you name it. Welcome to the ocean, let's try to help you find land.
- An audio interface, as far as your computer is concerned, is an external sound card. It has audio inputs, such as a microphone preamp and outputs which connect to other audio devices or to headphones or speakers. The modern day recording "rig" is based around a computer, and to get the sound onto your computer, an interface is necessary. All computers have a sound card of some sort, but these have very low quality A/D Converters (analog to digital) and were not designed with any kind of sophisticated audio recording in mind, so for us they are useless and a dedicated audio interface must come into play.
- There are hundreds of interfaces out there. Most commonly they connect to a computer via USB or Firewire. There are also PCI and PCI Express-based interfaces for desktop computers. The most simple interfaces can record one channel via USB, while others can record up to 30 via firewire! All of the connection types into the computer have their advantages and drawbacks. The chances are, you are looking at USB, Firewire, or Thunderbolt. As far as speeds, most interfaces are in the same realm as far as speed is concerned but thunderbolt is a faster data transfer rate. There are some differences in terms of CPU load. Conflict handling (when packages collide) is handled differently. USB sends conflict resolution to the CPU, Firewire handles it internally, Thunderbolt, from what I could find, sends it to the CPU as well. For most applications, none of them are going to be superior from a home-recording standpoint. When you get up to 16/24 channels in/out simultaneously, it's going to matter a lot more.
- There are a number of things to consider when choosing an audio interface. First off your budget, number of channels you'd like to be able to record simultaneously, your monitoring system, your computer and operating system and your applications. Regarding budget, you have to get real. $500 is not going to get you a rig with the ability to multi-track a drum set covered in mics. Not even close! You might get an interface with 8 channels for that much, but you have to factor in the cost of everything, including mics, cables, stands, monitors/headphones, software, etc... Considerations: Stereo Recording or Multi-Track Recording? Stereo Recording is recording two tracks: A left and right channel, which reflects most audio playback systems. This doesn't necessarily mean you are simply recording with two mics, it means that what your rig is recording onto your computer is a single stereo track. You could be recording a 5-piece band with 16 mics/channels, but if you're recording in stereo, all you're getting is a summation of those 16 tracks. This means that in your recording software, you won't be able to manipulate any of those channels independantly after you recorded them. If the rack tom mic wasn't turned up loud enough, or you want to mute the guitars, you can't do that, because all you have is a stereo track of everything. It's up to you to get your levels and balance and tone right before you hit record. If you are only using two mics or lines, then you will have individual control over each mic/line after recording. Commonly, you can find 2 input interfaces and use a sub-mixer taking the left/right outputs and pluging those into each channel of the interface. Some mixers will output a stereo pair into a computer as an interface, such as the Allen&Heath ZED16. If you want full control over every single input, you need to multi-track. Each mic or line that you are recording with will get it's own track in your DAW software, which you can edit and process after the fact. This gives you a lot of control over a recording, and opens up many mixing options, and also many more issues. Interfaces that facilitate multitracking include Presonus FireStudio, Focusrite Scarlett interfaces, etc. There are some mixers that are also interfaces, such as the Presonus StudioLive 16, but these are very expensive. There are core-card interfaces as well, these will plug in directly to your motherboard via PCI or PCI-Express slots. Protools HD is a core-card interface and requires more hardware than just the card to work. I would recommend steering clear of these until you have a firm grasp of signal chain and digital audio, as there are more affordable solutions that will yield similar results in a home-environment.

DAW - Digital Audio Workstation

I've talked a lot about theory, hardware, signal chain, etc... but we need a way to interpret this data. First off what does a DAW do? Some refer to them as DAE's (Digital Audio Editors). You could call it a virtual mixing board , however that isn't entirely correct. DAWs allow you to record, control, mix and manipulate independant audio signals. You can change their volume, add effects, splice and dice tracks, combine recorded audio with MIDI-generated audio, record MIDI tracks and much much more. In the old days, when studios were based around large consoles, the actual audio needed to be recorded onto some kind of medium - analog tape. The audio signals passed through the boards, and were printed onto the tape, and the tape decks were used to play back the audio, and any cutting, overdubbing etc. had to be done physically on the tape. With a DAW, your audio is converted into 1's and 0's through the converters on your interface when you record, and so computers and their harddiscs have largely taken the place of reel-to-reel machines and analog tape.
Here is a list of commonly used DAWs in alphabetical order: ACID Pro Apple Logic Cakewalk SONAR Digital Performer FL (Fruity Loops) Studio (only versions 8 and higher can actually record Audio I believe) GarageBand PreSonus Studio One Pro Tools REAPER Propellerhead Reason (version 6 has combined Reason and Record into one software, so it now is a full audio DAW. Earlier versions of Reason are MIDI based and don't record audio) Propellerhead Record (see above) Steinberg Cubase Steinberg Nuendo
There are of course many more, but these are the main contenders. [Note that not all DAWs actually have audio recording capabilities (All the ones I listed do, because this thread is about audio recording), because many of them are designed for applications like MIDI composing, looping, etc. Some are relatively new, others have been around for a while, and have undergone many updates and transformations. Most have different versions, that cater to different types of recording communities, such as home recording/consumer or professional.
That's a whole lot of choices. You have to do a lot of research to understand what each one offers, what limitations they may have etc... Logic, Garageband and Digital Performer for instance are Mac-only. ACID Pro, FL Studio and SONAR will only run on Windows machines. Garageband is free and is even pre-installed on every Mac computer. Most other DAWs cost something.
Reaper is a standout. A non-commercial license only costs $60. Other DAWs often come bundled with interfaces, such as ProTools MP with M-Audio interfaces, Steinberg Cubase LE with Lexicon Interfaces, Studio One with Presonus Interfaces etc. Reaper is a full function, professional, affordable DAW with a tremendous community behind it. It's my recommendation for everyone, and comes with a free trial. It is universally compatible and not hardware-bound.
You of course don't have to purchase a bundle. Your research might yield that a particular interface will suit your needs well, but the software that the same company offers or even bundles isn't that hot. As a consumer you have a plethora of software and hardware manufacturers competing for your business and there is no shortage of choice. One thing to think about though is compatability and customer support. With some exceptions, technically you can run most DAWs with most interfaces. But again, don't just assume this, do your research! Also, some DAWs will run smoother on certain interfaces, and might experience problems on others. It's not a bad thing to assume that if you purchase the software and hardware from the same company, they're at least somewhat optimized for eachother. In fact, ProTools, until recently would only run on Digidesign (now AVID) and M-Audio interfaces. While many folks didn't like being limited to their hardware choices to run ProTools, a lot of users didn't mind, because I think that at least in part it made ProTools run smoother for everyone, and if you did have a problem, you only had to call up one company. There are many documented cases where consumers with software and hardware from different companies get the runaround:
Software Company X: "It's a hardware issue, call Hardware Company Z". Hardware Company Z: "It's a software issue, call Software Company X".
Another thing to research is the different versions of softwares. Many of them have different versions at different pricepoints, such as entry-level or student versions all the way up to versions catering to the pros. Cheaper versions come with limitations, whether it be a maximum number of audio tracks you can run simultaneously, plug-ins available or supported Plug-In formats and lack of other features that the upper versions have. Some Pro versions might require you to run certain kinds of hardware. I don't have time nor the will to do research on individual DAW's, so if any of you want to make a comparison of different versions of a specific DAW, be my guest! In the end, like I keep stressing - we each have to do our own research.
A big thing about the DAW that it is important to note is this: Your signal chain is your DAW. It is the digital representation of that chain and it is important to understand it in order to properly use that DAW. It is how you route the signal from one spot to another, how you move it through a sidechain compressor or bus the drums into the main fader. It is a digital representation of a large-format recording console, and if you don't understand how the signal gets from the sound source to your monitor (speaker), you're going to have a bad time.

Playback - Monitors are not just for looking at!

I've mentioned monitors several times and wanted to touch on these quickly: Monitors are whatever you are using to listen to the sound. These can be headphones, powered speakers, unpowered speakers, etc. The key thing here is that they are accurate. You want a good depth of field, you want as wide a frequency response as you can get, and you want NEARFIELD monitors. Unless you are working with a space that can put the monitor 8' away from you, 6" is really the biggest speaker size you need. At that point, nearfield monitors will reproduce the audio frequency range faithfully for you. There are many options here, closed back headphones, open back headphones, studio monitors powered, and unpowered (require a separate poweramp to drive the monitor). For headphones, I recommend AKG K271, K872, Sennheiser HD280 Pro, etc. There are many options, but if mixing on headphones I recommend spending some good money on a set. For Powered Monitors, there's really only one choice I recommend: Kali Audio LP-6 monitors. They are, dollar for dollar, the best monitors you can buy for a home studio, period. These things contend with Genelecs and cost a quarter of the price. Yes, they still cost a bit, but if you're going to invest, invest wisely. I don't recommend unpowered monitors, as if you skimp on the poweramp they lose all the advantages you gain with monitors. Just get the powered monitors if you are opting for not headphones.

Drum Mic'ing Guide, I'm not going to re-create the wheel.


That's all for now, this has taken some time to put together (a couple hourse now). I can answer other questions as they pop up. I used a few sources for the information, most notably some well-put together sections on the Pearl Drummers Forum in the recording section. I know a couple of the users are no longer active there, but if you see this and think "Hey, he ripped me off!", you're right, and thanks for allowing me to rip you off!

A couple other tips that I've come across for home recording:
You need to manage your gain/levels when recording. Digital is NOT analog! What does this mean? You should be PEAKING (the loudest the signal gets) around -12dB to -15dB on your meters. Any hotter than that and you are overdriving your digital signal processors.
What sound level should my master bus be at for Youtube?
Bass Traps 101
Sound Proofing 101
submitted by M3lllvar to drums [link] [comments]

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